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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):E89-98. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-0595. Epub 2010 Oct 20.

25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I, and bone mineral accrual during growth.

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  • 1Department of Foods and Nutrition, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.



The extent to which 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and IGF-I influence bone mineral content (BMC) accrual from early to mid-puberty is unclear. OBJECTIVE, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study sought to determine relationships among 25(OH)D, IGF-I, and BMC in community-dwelling prepubertal females (n = 76; aged 4-8 yr at baseline) over a period of up to 9 yr.


The hypothesis that changes in IGF-I vs. 25(OH)D are more strongly associated with BMC accrual was formulated after data collection. 25(OH)D and IGF-I were log-transformed and further adjusted using two-way ANOVA for differences in season and race. Linear mixed modeling (including a random subject-specific intercept and a random subject-specific slope on age) was employed to analyze the proportion of variance the transformed 25(OH)D and IGF-I variables explained for the bone outcomes.


IGF-I was more strongly associated with BMC accrual than 25(OH)D at the total body (R(2) = 0.874 vs. 0.809), proximal femur (R(2) = 0.847 vs. 0.771), radius (R(2) = 0.812 vs. 0.759), and lumbar spine (R(2) = 0.759 vs. 0.698). The rate of BMC accrual was positively associated with changes in IGF-I but negatively associated with 25(OH)D. When IGF-I and 25(OH)D were included in the same regression equation, 25(OH)D did not have a significant predictive effect on BMC accrual above and beyond that of IGF-I.


These prospective data in early adolescent females indicate that both 25(OH)D and IGF-I have a significant impact on bone mineral accrual; however, the positive association of IGF-I and BMC accrual is greater than the negative association of 25(OH)D and BMC accrual.

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