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Nucl Med Commun. 2010 Dec;31(12):1016-24. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0b013e3283407950.

Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the hypoxia marker 18F-HX4 in monkeys and humans determined by using whole-body PET/CT.

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  • 1Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111-2497, USA.



F-HX4 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodistribution and estimate the radiation dose of F-HX4 using whole-body PET/computed tomography (CT) scans in monkeys and humans.


Successive whole-body PET/CT scans were done after the injection of F-HX4 in four healthy humans (422±142 MBq) and in three rhesus monkeys (189±3 MBq). Biodistribution was determined from PET images and organ doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM software.


The bladder, liver, and kidneys showed the highest percentage of the injected radioactivity for humans and monkeys. For humans, approximately 45% of the activity is eliminated by bladder voiding in 3.6 h, and for monkeys 60% is in the bladder content after 3 h. The critical organ is the urinary bladder wall with the highest absorbed radiation dose of 415±18 (monkeys) and 299±38 μGy/MBq (humans), in the 4.8-h bladder voiding interval model. The average value of effective dose for the adult male was estimated at 42±4.2 μSv/MBq from monkey data and 27±2 μSv/MBq from human data.


Bladder, kidneys, and liver have the highest uptake of injected F-HX4 activity for both monkeys and humans. The urinary bladder wall receives the highest dose of F-HX4 and is the critical organ. Thus, patients should be encouraged to maintain adequate hydration and void frequently. The effective dose of F-HX4 is comparable with that of other F-based imaging agents.

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