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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1813(1):73-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Akt-mediated signaling is induced by cytokines and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and suppresses hepatocyte inducible nitric oxide synthase expression independent of MAPK P44/42.

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  • 1University of Louisville, Department of Surgery, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.


Cyclic AMP inhibits the expression of nitric oxide synthase (Harbrecht et al., 1995 [1]) in hepatocytes but the mechanism for this effect is incompletely understood. Cyclic AMP can activate several intracellular signaling pathways in hepatocytes including Protein Kinase A (PKA), cAMP regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMP-GEFs), and calcium-mediated Protein Kinases. There is considerable overlap and cross-talk between many of these signaling pathways, however, and how these cascades regulate hepatocyte iNOS is not known. We hypothesized that Akt mediates the effect of cAMP on hepatocyte iNOS expression. Hepatocytes cultured with cytokines and dbcAMP increased Akt phosphorylation up to 2h of culture. Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10μM), farnyltranferase inhibitor FTI-276, or transfection with a dominant negative Akt. The cyclic AMP-induced suppression of cytokine-stimulated iNOS was partially reversed by LY294002 and FTI-276. LY294002 also increased NFκB nucleus translocation by Western blot analysis in nuclear extracts. Cyclic AMP increased phosphorylation of Raf1 at serine 259 which was blocked by LY294002 and associated with decreased MAPK P44/42 phosphorylation. However, inhibition of MAPK P44/42 signaling with PD98059 failed to suppress cytokine-induced hepatocyte iNOS expression and did not enhance the inhibitory effect of dbcAMP on iNOS production. A constitutively active MAPK P44/42 plasmid had no effect on cytokine-stimulated NO production. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression through an Akt-mediated signaling mechanism that is independent of MAPK P44/42.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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