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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Dec;54(12):5242-50. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00781-10. Epub 2010 Oct 4.

Population pharmacokinetic modeling of the association between 63396C->T pregnane X receptor polymorphism and unboosted atazanavir clearance.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool L69 3GF, United Kingdom.


Atazanavir (ATV) plasma concentrations are influenced by CYP3A4 and ABCB1, which are regulated by the pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2). PXR expression is correlated with CYP3A4 in liver in the absence of enzyme inducers. The PXR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 63396C→T (rs2472677) alters PXR expression and CYP3A4 activity in vitro, and we previously showed an association of this polymorphism with unboosted ATV plasma concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic analysis to quantify the impact of 63396C→T and diurnal variation on ATV clearance. A population analysis was performed with 323 plasma samples from 182 randomly selected patients receiving unboosted ATV. Two hundred fifty-nine of the blood samples were collected at random time points, and 11 patients had a full concentration-time profile at steady state. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling was applied to explore the effects of PXR 63396C→T, patient demographics, and diurnal variation. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag time best described the data. Population clearance was 19.7 liters/h with interpatient variability or coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.5%. Homozygosity for the T allele for PXR 63396 was associated with a 17.0% higher clearance that was statistically significant. Evening dosing was associated with 34% higher bioavailability than morning dosing. Patient demographic factors had no effect on ATV clearance. These data show an association of PXR 63396C→T and diurnal variation on unboosted ATV clearance. The association is likely to be mediated through an effect on hepatic PXR expression and therefore expression of its target genes (e.g., CYP3A4, SLCO1B1, and ABCB1), which are known to be involved in ATV clearance.

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