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Appl Opt. 1994 May 1;33(13):2637-47. doi: 10.1364/AO.33.002637.

Integrating sphere simulation: application to total flux scale realization.


A method is proposed for realizing the total flux scale of light sources by use of an integrating sphere with an opening to introduce a known amount of flux from a luminous intensity standard or a spectral irradiance standard lamp placed outside the sphere. Computer simulations were made on several models of an integrating sphere, designed to compare the total flux of a test lamp inside the sphere with the flux introduced from an external source. I describe the theory and algorithm of the simulation, present the results of the simulation for varying conditions of sphere geometry such as size and location of the baffles, internal source, and wall reflectance, and predict that one of the models has sufficient accuracy to calibrate lamps for total flux.

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