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N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 30;363(14):1324-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0911123.

Anti-GD2 antibody with GM-CSF, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for neuroblastoma.

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  • 1University of California, San Diego, and Moores Cancer Center, San Diego, CA 92103-8447, USA. aliceyu@ucsd.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Preclinical and preliminary clinical data indicate that ch14.18, a monoclonal antibody against the tumor-associated disialoganglioside GD2, has activity against neuroblastoma and that such activity is enhanced when ch14.18 is combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-2. We conducted a study to determine whether adding ch14.18, GM-CSF, and interleukin-2 to standard isotretinoin therapy after intensive multimodal therapy would improve outcomes in high-risk neuroblastoma.

METHODS:

Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who had a response to induction therapy and stem-cell transplantation were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive standard therapy (six cycles of isotretinoin) or immunotherapy (six cycles of isotretinoin and five concomitant cycles of ch14.18 in combination with alternating GM-CSF and interleukin-2). Event-free survival and overall survival were compared between the immunotherapy group and the standard-therapy group, on an intention-to-treat basis.

RESULTS:

A total of 226 eligible patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group. In the immunotherapy group, a total of 52% of patients had pain of grade 3, 4, or 5, and 23% and 25% of patients had capillary leak syndrome and hypersensitivity reactions, respectively. With 61% of the number of expected events observed, the study met the criteria for early stopping owing to efficacy. The median duration of follow-up was 2.1 years. Immunotherapy was superior to standard therapy with regard to rates of event-free survival (66±5% vs. 46±5% at 2 years, P=0.01) and overall survival (86±4% vs. 75±5% at 2 years, P=0.02 without adjustment for interim analyses).

CONCLUSIONS:

Immunotherapy with ch14.18, GM-CSF, and interleukin-2 was associated with a significantly improved outcome as compared with standard therapy in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00026312.)

Comment in

PMID:
20879881
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3086629
Free PMC Article
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