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Diabetologia. 2010 Dec;53(12):2621-8. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1903-9. Epub 2010 Sep 19.

Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology, Section Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 196, 9700 AD Groningen, the Netherlands. j.t.j.visser@med.umcg.nl

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:

Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type 1 diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes. Since a hydrolysed casein (HC) diet prevents autoimmune diabetes onset in diabetes-prone (DP)-BioBreeding (BB) rats, we studied the role of the HC diet on intestinal barrier function and, therefore, prevention of autoimmune diabetes onset in this animal model.

METHODS:

DP-BB rats were fed the HC diet from weaning onwards and monitored for autoimmune diabetes development. Intestinal permeability was assessed in vivo by lactulose-mannitol test and ex vivo by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Levels of serum zonulin, a physiological tight junction modulator, were measured by ELISA. Ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, Cldn1, Cldn2 and Ocln (which encode the tight junction-related proteins myosin IXb, claudin-1, claudin-2 and occludin) and Il-10, Tgf-ß (also known as Il10 and Tgfb, respectively, which encode regulatory cytokines) was analysed by quantitative PCR.

RESULTS:

The HC diet reduced autoimmune diabetes by 50% in DP-BB rats. In DP-BB rats, prediabetic gut permeability negatively correlated with the moment of autoimmune diabetes onset. The improved intestinal barrier function that was induced by HC diet in DP-BB rats was visualised by decreasing lactulose:mannitol ratio, decreasing serum zonulin levels and increasing ileal TEER. The HC diet modified ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, and Cldn1 and Cldn2, but left Ocln expression unaltered.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

Improved intestinal barrier function might be an important intermediate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by the HC diet in DP-BB rats. Effects on tight junctions, ileal cytokines and zonulin production might be important mechanisms for this effect.

PMID:
20853098
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2974912
Free PMC Article
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