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World Neurosurg. 2010 Apr;73(4):357-60. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2010.01.011.

Effect of acute cocaine use on vasospasm and outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA. alaraj@uic.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although acute cocaine use has been correlated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, its effect on vasospasm and outcome is controversial. We investigated the effect of acute cocaine use on response to vasospasm treatment and neurologic outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

METHODS:

Data from 600 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to the University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago between June 2002 and July 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who were positive for cocaine on urine toxicology or admitted to cocaine use within 72 hours of admission were compared with control patients with no history of cocaine use. Patients with unknown or remote history were excluded.

RESULTS:

Of the 600 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 27 (5%) were excluded. Thirty-one patients (5%) acutely used cocaine before admission. Cocaine users were younger than control (45.1 vs 54.1; P ≤ .0003), and were more likely to smoke tobacco, drink alcohol, and have renal dysfunction. There was no significant difference in Hunt-Hess or Fisher grade. In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no difference in unfavorable short-term outcome (modified Rankin scale > 3), incidence of symptomatic or radiologic vasospasm, stroke, or death. The number of interventional procedures for the treatment of vasospasm did not differ between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is no significant difference in incidence of symptomatic vasospasm or neurologic outcome between cocaine users and nonusers. The severity of the vasospasm and the response to treatment, as indicated by the number of vasospasm interventions, did not differ between the two groups.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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