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Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010 Dec;23(6):628-32. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32833ff1d0.

Can HIV infection be eradicated through use of potent antiviral agents?

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

This review focuses on recent advances in HIV research and therapy that seek to eradicate persistent HIV in patients on suppressive therapy.

RECENT FINDINGS:

The source of persistent HIV in patients on suppressive therapy is debated. Recent studies of treatment intensification have produced varied results: no reduction in low-level plasma viremia indicating the source of persistent viremia is long-lived HIV-infected cells that release HIV when activated and increase in episomal HIV DNA indicating active replication persists in some infected individuals on suppressive therapy. In addition, clonal HIV sequences found in plasma from patients on long-term suppressive therapy are rarely found in CD4+ memory T cells. These results indicate that persistent viremia may arise from several different sources. Recent studies emphasize the complexity of HIV latency. Current strategies for HIV eradication focus on compounds that activate viral transcription in memory CD4+ T cells by many routes, including inhibiting histone deacetylation and activating nuclear factor kappa B. Several compounds and combinations of these compounds appear to induce the expression of integrated HIV in different latency models.

SUMMARY:

The eradication of HIV requires the elimination of persistent HIV during suppressive therapy. Recent studies have focused on the source of persistent viremia, mechanisms of intracellular HIV latency, and reactivation of latent HIV. It remains to be seen whether alternative treatment strategies may be required to eradicate HIV.

PMID:
20847693
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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