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Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov;14(11):e978-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2010.05.018. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Toxoplasma gondii infection in first-episode and inpatient individuals with schizophrenia.

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  • 1Department of Pathobiology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.



A high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection has been detected in psychiatric patients, particularly in schizophrenia cases.


In the present study 98 patients suffering from schizophrenia (58 inpatients and 40 first-episode patients) and 96 control patients (50 healthy volunteers and 46 with a depressive disorder) were examined for the presence of both IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We applied the Bradford Hill criteria to identify the weight of causal inference.


The positivity rate of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies among individuals with schizophrenia (57.1%) was significantly higher than in healthy controls (29.2%). There were no associations between immune status ratio (ISR) values and the risk of schizophrenia. The weight of evidence approach using the Bradford Hill criteria revealed a 92% probability of a causal association.


Our results show that exposure to T. gondii may lead to schizophrenia.

Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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