Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R754-63. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.070.

Transcriptional enhancers in animal development and evolution.

Author information

  • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. mlevine@berkeley.edu

Abstract

Regulatory DNAs serve as templates to bring weakly interacting transcription factors into close proximity so they can work synergistically to switch genes on and off in time and space. Most of these regulatory DNAs are enhancers that can work over long distances--a million base pairs or more in mammals--to control gene expression. Critical enhancers are sometimes even found within the introns of neighboring genes. This review summarizes well-defined examples of enhancers controlling key processes in animal development. Potential mechanisms of transcriptional synergy are discussed with regard to enhancer structure and contemporary ChIP-sequencing assays, whereby just a small fraction of the observed binding sites represent bona fide regulatory DNAs. Finally, there is a discussion of how enhancer evolution can produce novelty in animal morphology and of the prospects for reconstructing transitions in animal evolution by introducing derived enhancers in basal ancestors.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
20833320
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk