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Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Apr;1(2):82-6. doi: 10.4103/0974-7788.64409.

Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma (Swarna makshika bhasma): An approach to standardization.

Author information

  • 1Department of Rasa Shastra, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institution of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India.

Abstract

Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS(2), and SM bhasma contains Fe(2)O(3), FeS(2), CuS and SiO(2). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.

KEYWORDS:

Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction

PMID:
20814520
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC2924988
Free PMC Article

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