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Wien Med Wochenschr. 2010 Aug;160(15-16):414-8. doi: 10.1007/s10354-010-0816-z.

[Microvascular and macrovascular complications in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

[Article in German]

Author information

  • 1Klinische Abteilung für Allgemeine Pädiatrie, Bereich Endokrinologie und Diabetes, Universitätsklinik für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Medizinische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria.


Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular complications, as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy are life-threatening complications in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Risk factors for the development of complications are longer duration of diabetes, older age and puberty. Further risk factors include smoking, hypertension, higher body mass index and dyslipoproteinaemia. Therefore prevention and screening for complications is an important part in the care of children and adolescents with T1DM. Target levels to reduce the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in children and adolescents with T1DM are the following: HbA1c<7.5%, lipids in normal range, blood pressure<90th percentile by age, sex and height, BMI<95th percentile, no smoking and physical activity. Screening for retinopathy and microalbuminuria should start from 11 years with two years diabetes duration and from 9 years with 5 years duration and after 2 years diabetes duration in an adolescent. Thereafter screening should be performed annually. Blood pressure should be measured at least annually. Screening for fasting blood lipids should be performed soon after diagnosis in all children with T1DM aged over 12 years. If normal results are obtained, this should be repeated every 5 years.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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