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J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov;48(11):3899-909. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00572-10. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Spoligotype-based comparative population structure analysis of multidrug-resistant and isoniazid-monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates in Poland.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract

The spoligotyping-based population structure of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Poland (n = 46), representing all culture-positive MDR tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, was compared to that of isoniazid (INH)-monoresistant strains (n = 71) isolated in 2004. The latter data set from a previous study (E. Augustynowicz-Kopeć, T. Jagielski, and Z. Zwolska, J. Clin. Microbiol. 2008, 46:4041-4044) represented 87% of all INH-monoresistant strains. The clustering rates and genotypic-diversity indexes for the 2 subpopulations were not significantly different (P = 0.05). The results were entered in the SITVIT2 database to assign specific shared type designations, corresponding genotypic lineages, and geographical distributions and compared to available data from neighboring countries (Germany, n = 704; Czech Republic, n = 530; Sweden, n = 379; Kaliningrad, Russia, n = 90) and strains from previous studies in Poland (n = 317). MDR strains resulted in 27 patterns (20 unique strains within the study and 7 clusters containing 2 to 6 isolates per cluster with a clustering rate of 56.5%) and belonged to the following genotypic lineages: ill-defined T family (28.3%), Haarlem (17.4%), Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (13%), Beijing (8.7%), S family (4.35%), and the X clade (2.17%). Comparison of the genetic structure of the MDR strains with that of INH-monoresistant strains showed that a total of 9 patterns were shared by both groups; these represented 1/3 of the MDR strains and 2/3 of the INH-monoresistant strains. Interestingly, 76.1% of the MDR isolates and 71.8% of the INH-resistant isolates yielded spoligotypes that were previously reported from Poland. The observation that nearly half of the spoligotypes identified among both MDR (48.1%) and INH-monoresistant (43.3%) M. tuberculosis isolates were present in Poland's neighboring countries suggested that a significant proportion of MDR and INH-resistant TB cases in Poland were caused by strains actively circulating in Poland or its neighbors. Our results corroborate the leading role of the T and Haarlem genotypes in the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB in Poland. Nevertheless, the LAM and Beijing family strains that infected, correspondingly, 13% and 9% of patients with MDR-TB were absent among the strains from patients with INH-monoresistant TB, suggesting that a proportion of MDR-TB cases in Poland are due to ongoing transmission of MDR clones exhibiting specific genotypes. Study of the population genetic relationships between MDR and INH-monoresistant strains by drawing minimum spanning trees showed that ill-defined T1 sublineage strains (1/3 of all INH-monoresistant strains), represented by its prototype, SIT53, constituted the central node of the tree, followed by strains belonging to the well-defined H3, H1, and S subgroups. However, the MDR group, in addition, contained LAM (n = 6) and Beijing (n = 4) lineage isolates. With the exception of the 4 Beijing lineage strains in the latter group and a single orphan isolate in the INH-monoresistant group, none of the remaining 112/117 isolates belonged to principal genetic group 1 (PGG1) in our study. Given the high rate of clustering and the near absence of immigrants in the study, the persistence of MDR-TB in Poland seems to result from active transmission of MDR strains within the autochthonous population, the bulk of it caused by evolutionarily recent tubercle bacilli.

PMID:
20810763
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3020827
Free PMC Article
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