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Sex Transm Dis. 2011 Jan;38(1):1-7. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181ec51f1.

Serologic testing for syphilis in the United States: a cost-effectiveness analysis of two screening algorithms.

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  • 1Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road MS E-80, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. kowusuedusei@cdc.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The introduction of automated treponemal enzyme immunoassays and chemiluminescence assays (EIA/CA) tests has led some laboratories in the United States to use new syphilis screening algorithms that start with a treponemal test. We compared the economic and health outcomes of this new algorithm with the standard algorithm from the perspective of the United States health system.

METHODS:

We used a cohort decision analysis to estimate the expected costs and effects (including follow-ups and overtreatment) of the 2 algorithms from a health-care system perspective. In the standard algorithm, rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is followed (if reactive) by EIA/CA (Nontreponemal-First). In the new algorithm, EIA/CA is followed (if reactive) by RPR. If the RPR is negative, Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) test is used (Treponemal-First).

RESULTS:

For a cohort of 200,000 individuals (1000 current infections and 10,000 previous infections), the net costs were $1.6 m (Treponemal-First) and $1.4 m (Nontreponemal-First). The Treponemal-First option treated 118 more cases (986 vs. 868) but resulted in a substantially higher number of follow-ups (11,450 vs. 3756) and overtreatment (964 vs. 38). Treating the additional 118 cases might prevent 1 case of tertiary syphilis. The estimated cost-effectiveness ratios were $1671 (Treponemal-First) and $1621 (Nontreponemal-First) per case treated. The overtreatment was a function of the specificity of the EIA/CA and the lack of independence of EIA/CA and TP-PA.

CONCLUSION:

The Treponemal-First option costs slightly more and results in more unnecessary treatment.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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