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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;49(9):906-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.06.007. Epub 2010 Aug 5.

Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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  • 1Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusettes General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.



Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed.


We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotyped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 arrays. A consensus SNP set was imputed using BEAGLE 3.0, resulting in an analysis dataset of 1,033,244 SNPs. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear model.


No genome-wide significant associations were found. The most significant results implicated the following genes: PRKG1, FLNC, TCERG1L, PPM1H, NXPH1, PPM1H, CDH13, HK1, and HKDC1.


The current analyses are a useful addition to the present literature and will make a valuable contribution to future meta-analyses. The candidate gene findings are consistent with a prior meta-analysis in suggesting that the effects of ADHD risk variants must, individually, be very small and/or include multiple rare alleles.

2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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