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Hosp Pract (1995). 2009 Dec;37(1):7-21. doi: 10.3810/hp.2009.12.249.

Incretin-based therapies: review of the outpatient literature with implications for use in the hospital and after discharge.

Author information

  • 1Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, GA 30309, USA. bbode001@aol.com

Abstract

A large percentage of critically ill adult inpatients have type 2 diabetes, which may be undiagnosed or uncontrolled during hospitalization. Hyperglycemia complicates the therapeutic management of inpatients and leads to adverse outcomes, and intensive glycemic control with insulin reduces morbidity and mortality. Insulin therapy, however, is labor-intensive and time-consuming. More important, long-standing protocols such as the sliding scale do not provide adequate glucose control. Although more research is needed to determine the best methods for treating hyperglycemia in-hospital, the importance of achieving better glycemic control while reducing the risk of hypoglycemia has been demonstrated. Post-discharge diabetes care is equally important, as it is essential in improving long-term outcomes after a hospital stay. Hospital care providers can play an important role in effective antihyperglycemic regimens in patients with diabetes prior to discharge. Post-discharge management is a formidable challenge because of the availability of an array of oral antidiabetes agents, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones, each with distinct therapeutic and adverse event profiles. Incretin-based therapies offer a potentially useful option for post-discharge therapy, and possibly for inpatient diabetes treatment. Incretins are effective, safe, and well-tolerated; they are easier for patients to use compared with insulin injections (eg, continual glucose monitoring is not required); and they may provide long-term improvement of cardiovascular parameters and beta-cell function. This review examines the challenges to achieving glycemic control in the hospital setting and summarizes clinical data on the efficacy and safety of incretin-based therapies in their use in the hospital and after discharge.

PMID:
20720383
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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