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Int J Cancer. 2011 Jun 1;128(11):2613-24. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25606. Epub 2010 Oct 4.

The role of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 and HAI-2 in endometrial cancer.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.


Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitors (HAI-1 and HAI-2) are Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors that have a broad inhibitory spectrum against serine proteases. This is the first study to investigate the role of HAI-1 and HAI-2 in endometrial cancer. We investigated the biological functions of HAI-1 and HAI-2 using KLE and HEC-251 endometrial cancer cell lines, thus HAI-1 and HAI-2 were examined in uterine normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. HAI-1 and HAI-2 showed potential inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, migration and cellular invasion by reduction of matriptase and hepsin expression. This in turn led to an increase in the levels of E-cadherin and Slug, and a reduction in the levels of Vimentin, SIP1, Snail and Twist, and hence ER and PR signal transduction in endometrial cancer cells. The levels of HAI-1 and HAI-2 expression were significantly decreased in endometrial cancer specimens relative to the corresponding normal endometrium specimens. Low HAI-1 and HAI-2 expression was a significant predictor for a poor prognosis compared with high HAI-1 and HAI-2 expression. These findings indicate that HAI-1 and HAI-2 could be considered as therapeutic targets and used as favorable prognosis markers for endometrial cancer.

Copyright © 2010 UICC.

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