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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 Mar;26(3):864-8. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq501. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

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  • 1Nephrology Service, Hospital Fernando Fonseca, Amadora, Portugal.



Nephrolithiasis has been associated with hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes among kidney stone formers (KSF) is unknown.


We examined the IV Portuguese National Health Survey for documenting possible associations between nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity in the Portuguese adult population.


We obtained 23 349 questionnaires from individuals ≥ 15 years old. The prevalence of kidney stone disease (KSD) was 7.3%. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among KSF when compared with the general population (50.4 vs 30.2%; P < 0.001). Age and obesity significantly increase the risk for nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for age and body mass index, KSF have higher prevalence of hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.841; 95% CI, 1.651-2.053], diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.475; 95% CI, 1.283-1.696; P < 0.001), myocardial infarction (OR, 1.338; 95% CI, 1.003-1.786; P < 0.05) and stroke (OR, 1.330; 95% CI, 1.015-1.743; P < 0.05) compared with non-stone formers.


KSD is associated with a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and adverse cardiovascular outcomes when compared with the general population.

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