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J Cardiol. 2010 Sep;56(2):125-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2010.06.004. Epub 2010 Aug 10.

Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse--diagnosis and management.

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  • 1Hoag Heart Valve Center, One Hoag Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92658, United States.


Although mitral valve prolapse as a disease entity has been recognized for over 50 years, its precise definition has been elusive. Initial reports based the diagnosis on auscultatory findings (late systolic click - murmur), with left ventricular angiography as a confirmative test. Echocardiography, first the M-mode, and subsequently the two-dimensional, became the dominant diagnostic modality. However, the early reports did not distinguish between billowing valve and flail valve. The advent of surgical repair techniques provided a different perspective; the surgical definition of mitral valve prolapse is often different from that of cardiologists. Intraoperative echocardiography gained wide acceptance necessitating a common language to describe precise terminology of the leaflet anatomy and definition of valve prolapse. The present report proposes a terminology and definitions of valve prolapse with relevance to surgical mitral valve repair. The addition of real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography now provides highly accurate localization of lesions and the multi segment assessment of valve pathology. The etiologic considerations and surgical repair techniques with the role of echo - surgery team in improved patient outcome are described.

Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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