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World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Aug 14;16(30):3745-9.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease: From pathophysiology to treatment.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637, United States.


This review focuses on the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its implications for treatment. The role of the natural anti-reflux mechanism (lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal peristalsis, diaphragm, and trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient), mucosal damage, type of refluxate, presence and size of hiatal hernia, Helicobacter pylori infection, and Barrett's esophagus are reviewed. The conclusions drawn from this review are: (1) the pathophysiology of GERD is multifactorial; (2) because of the pathophysiology of the disease, surgical therapy for GERD is the most appropriate treatment; and (3) the genesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma is associated with GERD.

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