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Pathol Res Pract. 2010 Nov 15;206(11):744-8. doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2010.07.001. Epub 2010 Aug 8.

Mitotically active cellular luteinized thecoma of the ovary and luteinized thecomatosis associated with sclerosing peritonitis: case studies, comparison, and review of the literature.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, 0027 Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

In this study, we distinguish two clinical and pathological entities that are similarly named: luteinized thecoma and luteinized thecoma associated with sclerosing peritonitis. Ovarian luteinized thecoma lacks definitive criteria for malignancy. Based on our case study of a mitotically active neoplasm without nuclear atypia in which the patient was living and well 19 years after operation and comparison with prior studies of luteinized thecoma and the closely related entity of cellular fibroma, we propose presumptive criteria for malignancy for this rare neoplasm. Increased mitotic activity in luteinized thecoma without significant nuclear atypia is not an indication of malignant behavior, and such cases should therefore be referred to as mitotically active cellular luteinized thecoma. We also contrast neoplasms in the luteinized thecoma category with the entity originally reported as luteinized thecoma associated with sclerosing peritonitis. In the latter, the ovarian stromal proliferations are typically bilateral, can have an exceedingly high mitotic rate as was seen in our illustrative case, often incorporate non-neoplastic ovarian structures at their periphery, and are responsive to medical therapy. In our patient with sclerosing peritonitis, both the ovarian masses and peritoneal sclerosis underwent complete regression following treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and high doses of steroids, and an ovarian biopsy taken 2 months after therapy showed a histologically normal ovary. The patient subsequently became pregnant and delivered a normal infant. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of successful medically conservative treatment of a young patient with this entity that led to complete relief of symptoms and allowed preservation of fertility. Because recent observations support the non-neoplastic nature of the ovarian stromal proliferations, we advocate use of the previously proposed term luteinized thecomatosis associated with sclerosing peritonitis for this entity.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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