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Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;23(6):561-9. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32833d16a8.

Detecting and defusing cognitive traps: metacognitive intervention in schizophrenia.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. moritz@uke.uni-hamburg.de



Until recently, psychological therapy for schizophrenia was considered harmful or inefficient by many clinicians. The reservation against psychotherapy is partly rooted in the assumption that delusions in particular and schizophrenia in general are not amenable to psychological understanding and represent 'utter madness'. However, meta-analyses suggest that cognitive intervention is effective in ameliorating schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, evidence has accumulated that cognitive biases, such as jumping to conclusions, are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia positive symptoms, particularly delusions. A recently developed group program, called metacognitive training (MCT), is presented targeting these biases. MCT is a hybrid of psychoeducation, cognitive remediation and cognitive-behavioural therapy.


This review introduces new evidence on cognitive biases involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and demonstrates how the MCT raises the patients' (metacognitive) awareness to detect and defuse such 'cognitive traps'. At the end, a new individualized variant entitled MCT+ is presented targeting individual delusional ideas. Finally, empirical results are summarized that speak in favour of the feasibility and efficacy of MCT.


Recent studies assert marked cognitive biases in schizophrenia. MCT has evolved as a feasible and effective complement of standard psychiatric treatment.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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