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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;24(3):693-703. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2010.04.012.

The convergence of the global smoking, COPD, tuberculosis, HIV, and respiratory infection epidemics.

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  • 1Lung Infection and Immunity Unit, Division of Pulmonology and UCT Lung Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town 7935, South Africa.


At the beginning of the 21st century, we are facing the convergence of several epidemics. These include tobacco smoking, tuberculosis, HIV infection, influenza, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These epidemics interact by way of increasing disease susceptibility and worsening outcomes. To control these interacting epidemics, we need to better understand each infection and how it influences the others. Multifaceted approaches will be necessary to reduce the impact on those in developing nations most likely to be affected by the convergence of all epidemics.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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