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Carbohydr Res. 2010 Sep 3;345(13):1846-50. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2010.07.003. Epub 2010 Jul 30.

Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquids under high fructose concentration conditions.

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  • 1Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian 116023, People's Republic of China.


Acid-promoted, selective production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) under high fructose concentration conditions was achieved in ionic liquids (ILs) at 80 degrees C. A HMF yield up to 97% was obtained in 8min using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) catalyzed with 9mol% hydrochloric acid. More significantly, an HMF yield of 51% was observed when fructose was loaded at a high concentration of 67wt% in [C(4)mim]Cl. Water content below 15.4% in the system had little effect on HMF yield, whereas a higher water content was detrimental to both reaction rate and HMF yield. In situ NMR analysis suggested that the transformation of fructose to HMF was a highly selective reaction that proceeded through the cyclic fructofuranosyl intermediate pathway. This work increased our capacity to produce HMF, and should be valuable to facilitate cost-efficient conversion of biomass into biofuels and bio-based products.

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