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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Oct;21(10):1678-90. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2009121234. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

A maladaptive role for EP4 receptors in podocytes.

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  • 1Kidney Research Centre, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase-2 reduces albuminuria in models of chronic kidney disease marked by podocyte injury. Previously, we identified a feedback loop in podocytes whereby an in vitro surrogate for glomerular capillary pressure (i.e., mechanical stretch) along with prostaglandin E(2) stimulation of its EP4 receptor induced cyclooxygenase-2 in a p38-dependent manner. Here we asked whether stimulation of EP4 receptors would exacerbate glomerulopathies associated with enhanced glomerular capillary pressure. We generated mice with either podocyte-specific overexpression or depletion of the EP4 receptor (EP4(pod+) and EP4(pod-/-), respectively). Glomerular prostaglandin E(2)-stimulated cAMP levels were eightfold greater for EP4(pod+) mice compared with nontransgenic (non-TG) mice. In contrast, EP4 mRNA levels were >50% lower, and prostaglandin E(2)-induced cAMP synthesis was absent in podocytes isolated from EP4(pod-/-) mice. Non-TG and EP4(pod+) mice underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and exhibited similar increases in systolic BP (+25 mmHg) by 4 weeks compared with sham-operated controls. Two weeks after nephrectomy, the albumin-creatinine ratio of EP4(pod+) mice (3438 μg/mg) was significantly higher than that of non-TG mice (773 μg/mg; P < 0.0001). Consistent with more severe renal injury, the survival rate for nephrectomized EP4(pod+) mice was significantly lower than that for non-TG mice (14 versus 67%). In contrast, 6 weeks after nephrectomy, the albumin-creatinine ratio of EP4(pod-/-) mice (753 μg/mg) was significantly lower than that of non-TG mice (2516 μg/mg; P < 0.05). These findings suggest that prostaglandin E(2), acting via EP4 receptors contributes to podocyte injury and compromises the glomerular filtration barrier.

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