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Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2010 Jul;20(3):417-29. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2010.03.002.

Non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms are relatively common worldwide.

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  • 1Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy, Imperial College, St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, HA1 3UJ, London, UK.


Flat adenomas are found commonly at colonoscopy throughout the world. Similarly, small, flat submucosally invasive cancers have been described worldwide but are relatively rare, accounting for 5% to 10% of all cancers detected at colonoscopy. Although there appears to be no difference in frequency of non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms between East and West, considerable variation has been reported by individual studies, probably because of lack of consistency when defining a flat lesion. Flat elevated lesions are the most common type of flat lesion and do not appear to have a greatly increased risk of harboring invasive malignancy; however, flat lesions with depression have a significant risk of malignancy and are probably the precursor lesions for most small, flat, or ulcerating cancers.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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