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Protoplasma. 2011 Apr;248(2):373-90. doi: 10.1007/s00709-010-0180-2. Epub 2010 Jul 20.

Actin filament-organized local cortical endoplasmic reticulum aggregations in developing stomatal complexes of grasses.

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  • 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Athens, 15784, Greece.


Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) immunolabeling in developing stomatal complexes and in the intervening cells of the stomatal rows (ICSRs) of Zea mays revealed that the cortical-ER forms distinct aggregations lining locally expanding wall regions. The polarized subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs), displayed a cortical-ER-patch lining the wall region shared with the inducing guard cell mother cell (GMC), which disorganized during mitosis. In dividing SMCs, ER persisted in the preprophase band region and was unequally distributed in the mitotic spindle poles. The subsidiary cells (SCs) formed initially an ER-patch lining the common wall with the GMC or the young guard cells and afterwards an ER-ring in the junction of the SC wall with the neighboring ones. Distinct ER aggregations lined the ICSR wall regions shared with the SCs. The cortical-ER aggregations in stomatal cells of Z. mays were co-localized with actin filament (AF) arrays but both were absent from the respective cells of Triticum turgidum, which follow a different morphogenetic pattern. Experimental evidence showed that the interphase ER aggregations are organized by the respective AF arrays, while the mitotic ER aggregations by microtubules. These results revealed that AF and ER demarcated "cortical cytoplasmic domains" are activated below the locally expanding stomatal cell wall regions, probably via a mechanosensing mechanism triggered by the locally stressed plasmalemma/cell wall continuum. The probable role(s) of the local ER aggregations are discussed.

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