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Gd-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-polylysyl-N-glutaryl-phosphatidyl ethanolamine-2C5 liposomes.


Leung K.


Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2004-2013.
2009 May 17 [updated 2009 Jun 09].


Natural autoantibodies are produced when the immune system recognizes one or more of the body's normal constituents as foreign. These autoantibodies attack the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to systemic autoimmune diseases. Nucleosome-specific anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANAs) have been found to exhibit anti-tumor activity (1). The nucleosomes targeted by these antibodies are released from the dying tumor cells and bind to the adjacent healthy tumor cells, leading to the formation of ANAs specific to the nucleosomes (2). The nucleosome-specific ANA monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C5 was found to have anti-tumor activity against a variety of experimental tumor models but showed no recognition of normal cells (1). There was an increased survival rate in cancer patients with elevated levels of serum ANAs (3, 4). Gadolinium (Gd), a lanthanide metal ion with seven unpaired electrons, has been shown to be very effective in enhancing proton relaxation because of its high magnetic moment and water coordination (5, 6). Gd-Labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was the first intravenous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent used clinically, and a number of similar Gd chelates have been developed in an effort to further improve clinical use. However, these low molecular weight Gd chelates have short blood and tissue retention times, which limit their use as imaging agents in the vasculature and cancer. Furthermore, they are largely nonspecific. Investigators (7, 8) have prepared liposomes containing Gd-loaded polychelating polymers and the mAb 2C5 for MRI of ANA expression in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts.

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