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Leung K.


Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2004-2013.
2008 Nov 01 [updated 2008 Dec 02].


Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell-surface glycoprotein with a molecular weight of ~100 kDa. It is a unique, type II, transmembrane-bound glycoprotein that is overexpressed on prostate tumor cells and in the neovasculature of most solid prostate tumors, but not in the vasculature of normal tissues (1, 2). It has also been detected in other tissues such as the kidney, the proximal small intestine, and the salivary glands, with minimal expression in the brain (2). PSMA was found to have N-acetyl α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) or glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) activity (3). PSMA may play an important role in the progression of prostate cancer, glutamatergic neurotransmission, and in the absorption of folate (4). In the central nervous system, PSMA metabolizes N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), and in the proximal small intestine PSMA removes γ-linked glutamates from poly-γ-glutamate folate and folate hydrolase (2). PSMA can be used as a marker for the detection of metastatic cancers with imaging agents. Although the commercially available monoclonal antibody [111In]-Capromomab pendetide (111In-CYT-356) is in clinical use for the detection of prostate cancer, the results obtained with this antibody are not entirely reliable (5). In addition, the antibody has limited access to tumors and may produce low signal/noise ratios because the target is the intracellular domain of PSMA (6, 7). N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-S-[11C]methyl-L-cysteine ([11C]DCMC) was evaluated for the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of PSMA-positive tumors in an in vivo rodent model for prostate cancer (8). However, the potential widespread use of [11C]DCMC is limited by the short half-life of 11C (20 min). N-[N-[(S)-1,3-Dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-[18F]fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine ([18F]DCFBC), an analog of DCMC, has also been studied (9).

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