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Plant Cell. 2010 Jul;22(7):2417-28. doi: 10.1105/tpc.110.074492. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Spatial uncoupling of mitosis and cytokinesis during appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

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  • 1School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom.

Abstract

To infect plants, many pathogenic fungi develop specialized infection structures called appressoria. Here, we report that appressorium development in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae involves an unusual cell division, in which nuclear division is spatially uncoupled from the site of cytokinesis and septum formation. The position of the appressorium septum is defined prior to mitosis by formation of a heteromeric septin ring complex, which was visualized by spatial localization of Septin4:green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Septin5:GFP fusion proteins. Mitosis in the fungal germ tube is followed by long-distance nuclear migration and rapid formation of an actomyosin contractile ring in the neck of the developing appressorium, at a position previously marked by the septin complex. By contrast, mutants impaired in appressorium development, such as Deltapmk1 and DeltacpkA regulatory mutants, undergo coupled mitosis and cytokinesis within the germ tube. Perturbation of the spatial control of septation, by conditional mutation of the SEPTATION-ASSOCIATED1 gene of M. oryzae, prevented the fungus from causing rice blast disease. Overexpression of SEP1 did not affect septation during appressorium formation, but instead led to decoupling of nuclear division and cytokinesis in nongerminated conidial cells. When considered together, these results indicate that SEP1 is essential for determining the position and frequency of cell division sites in M. oryzae and demonstrate that differentiation of appressoria requires a cytokinetic event that is distinct from cell divisions within hyphae.

PMID:
20639448
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2929119
Free PMC Article

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