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Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 May;160(2):176-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04153.x.

Developing combination immunotherapies for type 1 diabetes: recommendations from the ITN-JDRF Type 1 Diabetes Combination Therapy Assessment Group.

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  • 1Immune Tolerance Network, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA.


Like many other complex human disorders of unknown aetiology, autoimmune-mediated type 1 diabetes may ultimately be controlled via a therapeutic approach that combines multiple agents, each with differing modes of action. The numerous advantages of such a strategy include the ability to minimize toxicities and realize synergies to enhance and prolong efficacy. The recognition that combinations might offer far-reaching benefits, at a time when few single agents have yet proved themselves in well-powered trials, represents a significant challenge to our ability to conceive and implement rational treatment designs. As a first step in this process, the Immune Tolerance Network, in collaboration with the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, convened a Type 1 Diabetes Combination Therapy Assessment Group, the recommendations of which are discussed in this Perspective paper.

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