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Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;26(3):239-46. doi: 10.1002/gps.2519.

The center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D) is an adequate screening instrument for depressive and anxiety disorders in a very old population living in residential homes.

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  • 1Department of General Practice, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. els.dozeman@vumc.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The CES-D is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for depression in community-based studies of the elderly, but the characteristics of the CES-D in a residential home population have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity and the predictive power of the CES-D for both depressive and anxiety disorders in a vulnerable, very old population living in residential homes.

METHODS:

Two hundred seventy seven residents were screened with the CES-D, and subsequently interviewed with a diagnostic instrument, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Instrument (MINI). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the CES-D were calculated by cross-tabulation at different cut-off scores. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were used to assess the optimal cut-off point for each disorder and to asses the predictive power of the instrument.

RESULTS:

In a residential home population the CES-D had satisfactory criterion validity for depressive disorders and for any combination of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. With a desired sensitivity of at least 80%, the optimal cut-off scores varied between 18 and 22. The predictive power of the CES-D in this population was best for major depression and dysthymia (Area Under the Curve, AUC 0.87), closely followed by the score for any combination of depressive and/or anxiety disorder (AUC 0.86).

CONCLUSION:

The use of one single instrument to screen for both depression and anxiety disorders at the same time has obvious advantages in this very old population. The CES-D seems to be a suitable instrument for this purpose.

Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID:
20623777
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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