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Surv Ophthalmol. 2010 Sep-Oct;55(5):403-28. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2010.01.002. Epub 2010 Jul 10.

Tilted optic disks.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.


Tilted optic disks are a common finding in the general population. An expression of anomalous human development, the tilted disk appears rotated and tilted along its axes. Visual sequelae described with tilted optic disks include myopia, astigmatism, visual field loss, deficient color vision, and retinal abnormalities. Although the natural course of tilted optic disks is nonprogressive, the anomaly can be mistaken for tumors of the anterior visual pathway, edema of the optic nerve head, or glaucoma. A thorough examination of patients with tilted disk includes refraction, dilated fundus examination, and visual field testing. At times, neuroimaging may be necessary to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Until normative data are validated for tilted disks, the role of new imaging technologies for the optic nerve head is limited. Familiarity with the spectrum of ophthalmoscopic appearance and the clinical manifestations of tilted disks may be the most critical factors in avoiding misdiagnosis.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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