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Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010 Nov;15(6):993-1001. doi: 10.1007/s12192-010-0210-1. Epub 2010 Jul 4.

Transcriptional increase and misexpression of 14-3-3 epsilon in sea urchin embryos exposed to UV-B.

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  • 1Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare, Alberto Monroy, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146, Palermo, Italy.


Members of the 14-3-3 protein family are involved in many important cellular events, including stress response, survival and apoptosis. Genes of the 14-3-3 family are conserved from plants to humans, and some members are responsive to UV radiation. Here, we report the isolation of the complete cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, referred to as Pl14-3-3ε, and the phylogenetic relationship with other homologues described in different phyla. Pl14-3-3ε mRNA levels were measured by QPCR during development and found to increase from the mesenchyme blastula to the prism stage. In response to UV-B (312 nm) exposure, early stage embryos collected 2 h later showed a 2.3-fold (at 400 J/m(2)) and a 2.7-fold (at 800 J/m(2)) increase in Pl14-3-3ε transcript levels compared with controls. The spatial expression of Pl14-3-3ε mRNA, detected by whole mount in situ hybridization in both control and UV-B exposed embryos, harvested at late developmental stages, showed transcripts to be located in the archenteron of gastrula stage and widely distributed in all germ layers, respectively. The Pl14-3-3ε mRNA delocalization parallels the failure in archenteron elongation observed morphologically, as well as the lack of specific endoderm markers, investigated by indirect immuno-fluorescence on whole mount embryos. Results confirm the involvement of 14-3-3ε in the stress response elicited by UV-B and demonstrate, for the first time, its contribution at the transcriptional level in the sea urchin embryo.

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