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Eur J Neurol. 2010 Jul;17 Suppl 1:22-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03046.x.

Focal limb dystonia.

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  • 1Parkinson disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Faculty of Medicine, Institut Clínic de Neurociències, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.


Limb dystonia (LD) refers to dystonia affecting one arm or leg. Depending on the site of onset, age at onset, and the etiology, progression and prognosis will be different. Usually young-onset primary dystonia affects the lower limbs and tends to generalize, while in adult-onset, it appears in the arm and remains focal. Lower limb dystonia in adults is rare as a primary cause, and parkinsonism or other neurological diseases must always be ruled out. In the text that follows, we review the main clinical features of the primary and secondary limb dystonias considering the age at onset and etiology.

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