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Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(25):2746-63.

Involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), calcium independent phospholipase A(2) and plasmalogen selective phospholipase A(2) in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions.

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  • 1Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore. wei_yi_ong@nuhs.edu.sg

Abstract

Enzymes belonging to the PLA(2) superfamily catalyze the hydrolysis of unsaturated fatty acids from the sn-2 position of glycerol moiety of neural membrane phospholipids. The PLA(2) superfamily is classified into cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)), calcium-independent PLA(2) (iPLA(2)), plasmalogen-selective PLA(2) (PlsEtn-PLA(2)) and secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)). PLA(2) paralogs/splice variants/isozymes are part of a complex signal transduction network that maintains cross-talk among excitatory amino acid and dopamine receptors through the generation of second messengers. Individual paralogs, splice variants and multiple forms of PLA(2) may have unique enzymatic properties, tissue and subcellular localizations and role in various physiological and pathological situations, hence tight regulation of all PLA(2) isoforms is essential for normal brain function. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses show significantly higher relative level of expression of iPLA(2) than cPLA(2) in all regions of the rat brain. Upregulation of the cPLA(2) family is involved in degradation of neural membrane phospholipids and generation of arachidonic acid-derived lipid metabolites that have been implicated in nociception, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. In contrast, studies using a selective iPLA(2) inhibitor, bromoenol lactone, or antisense oligonucleotide indicate that iPLA(2) is an important "housekeeping" enzyme under basal conditions, whose activity is required for the prevention of vacuous chewing movements, a rodent model for tardive dyskinesia, and deficits in the prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle reflex, a common finding in schizophrenia. These studies support the view that PLA(2) activity may not only play a crucial role in neurodegeneration but depending on the isoform, could also be essential in prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases. The findings could open new doors for understanding and treatment of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases.

PMID:
20586719
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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