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RNA. 2010 Aug;16(8):1449-62. doi: 10.1261/rna.2254110. Epub 2010 Jun 28.

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in cellular processes: Focus on hnRNP E1's multifunctional regulatory roles.

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  • 1Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.


Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) comprise a family of RNA-binding proteins. The complexity and diversity associated with the hnRNPs render them multifunctional, involved not only in processing heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) into mature mRNAs, but also acting as trans-factors in regulating gene expression. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1), a subgroup of hnRNPs, is a KH-triple repeat containing RNA-binding protein. It is encoded by an intronless gene arising from hnRNP E2 through a retrotransposition event. hnRNP E1 is ubiquitously expressed and functions in regulating major steps of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Given its wide-ranging functions in the nucleus and cytoplasm and interaction with multiple proteins, we propose a post-transcriptional regulon model that explains hnRNP E1's widespread functional diversity.

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