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Oncogene. 2010 Sep 16;29(37):5146-58. doi: 10.1038/onc.2010.258. Epub 2010 Jun 28.

AZGP1 is a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer inducing mesenchymal-to-epithelial transdifferentiation by inhibiting TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Abstract

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling leads to aggressive cancer progression. In this study, we identified zinc-α2-glycoprotein (AZGP1, ZAG) as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma whose expression is lost due to histone deacetylation. In vitro, ZAG silencing strikingly increased invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells accompanied by the induction of a mesenchymal phenotype. Expression analysis of a set of EMT markers showed an increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin (VIM) and integrin-α5) and a concomitant reduction in the expression of epithelial markers (cadherin 1 (CDH1), desmoplakin and keratin-19). Blockade of endogenous TGF-β signaling inhibited these morphological changes and the downregulation of CDH1, as elicited by ZAG silencing. In a ZAG-negative cell line, human recombinant ZAG (rZAG) specifically inhibited exogenous TGF-β-mediated tumor cell invasion and VIM expression. Furthermore, rZAG blocked TGF-β-mediated ERK2 phosphorylation. PCR array analysis revealed that ZAG-induced epithelial transdifferentiation was accompanied by a series of concerted cellular events including a shift in the energy metabolism and prosurvival signals. Thus, epigenetically regulated ZAG is a novel tumor suppressor essential for maintaining an epithelial phenotype.

PMID:
20581862
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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