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Nat Methods. 2010 Jul;7(7):516-8. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1471. Epub 2010 Jun 27.

Simultaneous intracellular chloride and pH measurements using a GFP-based sensor.

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  • 1National Enterprise for nanoScience and nanoTechnology, Istituto Nanoscienze, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy.


Chloride and protons perform important closely related roles in many cellular responses. Here we developed a ratiometric biosensor, ClopHensor, based on a highly chloride-sensitive Aequorea victoria GFP variant that is suited for the combined real-time optical detection of pH changes and chloride fluxes in live cells. We detected high chloride concentration in large dense-core exocytosis granules by targeting ClopHensor to these intracellular compartments.

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