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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Nov 1;78(3):904-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.12.068. Epub 2010 Jun 25.

A failure detection strategy for intrafraction prostate motion monitoring with on-board imagers for fixed-gantry IMRT.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.



To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold.


Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients.


A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using "freely available" cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy.


Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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