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J Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 15;202(3):345-54. doi: 10.1086/653839.

Leprosy and HIV coinfection: a clinical, pathological, immunological, and therapeutic study of a cohort from a Brazilian referral center for infectious diseases.

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  • 1Department of Dermatology, Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.



Although awareness of the relevance of leprosy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is increasing worldwide, several aspects of this co-occurrence are not fully understood.


We describe clinical, pathological, immunological, and therapeutic long-term follow-up of a cohort of 25 individuals with leprosy and HIV infection from Manaus, Amazonas.


Careful description of our cohort indicates a higher prevalence of leprosy in an HIV-positive population than that in the general population. We also observed upgrading shifting of leprosy clinical forms after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug therapy and an impact of HIV infection on leprosy granuloma formation, among other features.


Taken together, these new insights allow the proposition of a classification system that includes (1) leprosy and HIV true coinfection, (2) opportunistic leprosy disease, and (3) leprosy related to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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