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J Virol. 2010 Aug;84(15):7513-22. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00200-10. Epub 2010 May 26.

A vesicular stomatitis virus-based hepatitis B virus vaccine vector provides protection against challenge in a single dose.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conneticut 06520-8023, USA.


As one of the world's most common infectious diseases, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious worldwide public health problem, with HBV-associated liver disease accounting for more than half a million deaths each year. Although there is an effective prophylactic vaccine currently available to prevent infection, it has a number of characteristics that are suboptimal: multiple doses are needed to induce long-lasting immunity, immunity declines over time, it does not elicit protection in some individuals, and it is not effective therapeutically. We produced a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine vector expressing the HBV middle envelope surface protein (MS) and found that this vector was able to efficiently generate a strong HBs-specific antibody response following a single immunization in mice. A single immunization with the VSV-MS vector also induced robust CD8 T-cell activation. The CD8 T-cell response was greater in magnitude and broader in specificity than the response generated by a vaccinia virus-based vaccine vector or by recombinant protein immunization. Furthermore, a single VSV-MS immunization provided protection against virus challenge in mice. Given the similar antibody titers and superior T-cell responses elicited from a single immunization, a VSV-based HBV vaccine may have advantages over the current recombinant protein vaccine.

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