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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 8;107(23):10578-83. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1005931107. Epub 2010 May 24.

Parent-independent genotyping for constructing an ultrahigh-density linkage map based on population sequencing.

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  • 1National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.


Bar-coded multiplexed sequencing approaches based on new-generation sequencing technologies provide capacity to sequence a mapping population in a single sequencing run. However, such approaches usually generate low-coverage and error-prone sequences for each line in a population. Thus, it is a significant challenge to genotype individual lines in a population for linkage map construction based on low-coverage sequences without the availability of high-quality genotype data of the parental lines. In this paper, we report a method for constructing ultrahigh-density linkage maps composed of high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on low-coverage sequences of recombinant inbred lines. First, all potential SNPs were identified to obtain drafts of parental genotypes using a maximum parsimonious inference of recombination, making maximum use of SNP information found in the entire population. Second, high-quality SNPs were identified by filtering out low-quality ones by permutations involving resampling of windows of SNPs followed by Bayesian inference. Third, lines in the mapping population were genotyped using the high-quality SNPs assisted by a hidden Markov model. With 0.05x genome sequence per line, an ultrahigh-density linkage map composed of bins of high-quality SNPs using 238 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two rice varieties was constructed. Using this map, a quantitative trait locus for grain width (GW5) was localized to its presumed genomic region in a bin of 200 kb, confirming the accuracy and quality of the map. This method is generally applicable in genetic map construction with low-coverage sequence data.

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