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Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):623-33. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70112-5.

Cognitive deficits and associated neurological complications in individuals with Down's syndrome.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, CA 92868, USA. itlott@uci.edu

Abstract

Improvements in medical interventions for people with Down's syndrome have led to a substantial increase in their longevity. Diagnosis and treatment of neurological complications are important in maintaining optimal cognitive functioning. The cognitive phenotype in Down's syndrome is characterised by impairments in morphosyntax, verbal short-term memory, and explicit long-term memory. However, visuospatial short-term memory, associative learning, and implicit long-term memory functions are preserved. Seizures are associated with cognitive decline and seem to cause additional decline in cognitive functioning, particularly in people with Down's syndrome and comorbid disorders such as autism. Vision and hearing disorders as well as hypothyroidism can negatively impact cognitive functioning in people with Down's syndrome. Dementia that resembles Alzheimer's disease is common in adults with Down's syndrome. Early-onset dementia in adults with Down's syndrome does not seem to be associated with atherosclerotic complications.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
20494326
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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