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Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2010 Aug;20(4):624-36. doi: 10.1080/09602011003715141. Epub 2010 May 1.

Structured floral arrangement programme for improving visuospatial working memory in schizophrenia.

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  • 1National Institute of Floricultural Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFS-NARO), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. hirokom@affrc.go.jp


Several cognitive therapies have been developed for patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the outcomes of these therapies in terms of non-verbal/visuospatial working memory, even though this may affect patients' social outcomes. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of a structured floral arrangement (SFA) programme, where participants were required to create symmetrical floral arrangements. In this programme, the arrangement pattern and the order of placing each of the natural materials was predetermined. Participants have to identify where to place each material, and memorise the position temporarily to complete the floral arrangement. The schizophrenic patients who participated in this programme showed significant improvement in their scores for a block-tapping task backward version; whereas, non-treated control patients did not show such an improvement. The present results suggest that the SFA programme may positively stimulate visuospatial working memory in patients.

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