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Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2010 Mar;7 Suppl 2:186-92.

Clinical assessment of thyroid related orbitopathy: a review.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ha'emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel.


This review follows the process of evaluation of thyroid related orbitopathy (TRO) patients from diagnosis to treatment decision. We will attempt to define the criteria for referring TRO patients to the ophthalmologist and establish a common basis for orbital examination and TRO patient assessment. This should help classify TRO patients and achieve the best treatment regime. Thyroid related orbitopathy (TRO) is an endocrine disorder with orbital manifestations. Though most patients are first seen by an endocrinologist because of thyroid function disturbance symptoms, approximately 10% will first be seen by an ophthalmologist due to orbitopathy symptoms and signs (1). In the majority of cases the time interval between the appearance of dysthyroid symptomatology and orbital signs is less than a year. Among patients with thyroid endocrine dysfunction, 25% to 50% will gradually develop TRO. Most will have mild orbital manifestations, 28% will develop moderate to severe signs and only 3-5% will have the severe form (2). In this review we will follow the TRO patient through his first steps in the orbital clinic and emphasize the importance of clinical assessment as a crucial phase in determining the appropriate therapeutic approach.

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