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Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2010 May;17(3):237-45. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2010.03.003.

Risk factors and screening for chronic kidney disease.

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  • 1National Kidney Foundation Inc., New York, NY, USA.


The asymptomatic nature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) makes explicit screening strategies for individuals at risk as the only means of early detection. This will allow more time for interventions to alter the natural history of the disease by delaying or preventing kidney disease progression and its complications. Patient awareness of CKD remains low. Utilization of CKD tests for patients at risk and interpretation of those tests to detect CKD by primary care physicians remain suboptimal. There is insufficient evidence to support general population screening. Diabetes, hypertension, and age 60 or greater are the primary CKD screening target conditions, based on assessments representative of the general populations in America and Norway. Although cardiovascular disease, family history of CKD, and ethnic and racial minorities are important predictors of CKD risk, they do not contribute significantly beyond the scope of diabetes, hypertension, and older age. Challenges remain to define the roles in the community of the primary physician and nephrologist to implement intensive blood pressure control, use of renin-angiotensin system blockers for proteinuric patients and nephrology referral as indicated. The electronic medical record holds the most promise in CKD screening through improvements in the flow of information and application of clinical decision support.

Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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