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Bull Menninger Clin. 1991 Spring;55(2):172-81.

Bipolar disorder: epidemiology, course, diagnosis, and treatment.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906.


Bipolar affective disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a major public health problem affecting approximately 1% of the U.S. population. Despite the considerable emotional, psychological, and economic cost of this disorder, relatively little research has focused on developing alternative maintenance treatments for bipolar patients. The authors review the epidemiology, course, diagnosis, and current treatment options for those patients with bipolar disorder, then suggest areas for further research.

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