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J Midwifery Womens Health. 2010 May-Jun;55(3):262-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2010.01.006.

Normalizing birth in England: a qualitative study.

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  • 1Yale University School of Nursing, 100 Church Street South, New Haven, CT 06536-0740, USA.



This study examined factors that foster or hinder the support of normal birth in two English National Health Service Trusts identified for public recognition of their work to normalize birth.


This interpretative qualitative study was guided by institutional ethnographic and narrative methods. Purposive sampling was conducted to achieve maximal variation across social, demographic, cultural and ethnic groups. In-depth interviews explored clinician's and women's views and experiences of normal birth. Ethnographic observations of practice, clinical and administrative meetings, educational sessions, and informal discussions were conducted over 6 months at one of the maternity settings. Antenatal and intrapartum clinical guidelines were reviewed and analyzed.


Three key strategies supported the normalization of birth: 1) an "ethos" of normality; 2) "working" the evidence; and 3) "trusting" women to make informed choices best for them. Inappropriate use of technology, disregarding risk status when assigning women to units, lack of physician preparation in normal birth, and poor staffing levels were cited as barriers.


These strategies should be carefully examined for translation to the United States and future research.

Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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